Mut is the mother goddess, associated with the waters from which everything was bornEgyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh. The many achievements of the ancient Egyptians include the quarrying, surveying and construction techniques that facilitated the building of monumental pyramids, temples, and obelisks;
a system of mathematics, a practical and effective system of medicine, irrigation systems and agricultural production techniques, the first known ships, Egyptian faience and glass technology, new forms of literature, and the earliest known peace treaty.
Sinai was inhabited by the Monitu and was called Mafkat or Country of Turquoise. From the time of the First dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, Wadi Maghareh and Serabit el-Khadim. The mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit the deposits have been unprofitable. These may be the first known mines.
The peninsula was crossed by the Israelites during The Exodus from Egypt as detailed in the Hebrew Bible. This included numerous halts over a 40 year period of travel in AM 2448 (1313 BCE) in the Jewish tradition.
Natural border and buffer zone between Asia and the Nile valley Sinai owed its importance to the Egypt's economy for its valuable minerals - Egyptian presence in Sinai dates back from 3000 BC, when they developed the peninsula's copper and turquoise Mines
Around 1400 BC, Moses led the Israelites through its "great and terrible wilderness" on the epic journey recounted in Exodus.
Heka is the deification of magic.In Egyptian myth, magic (heka) was one of the forces used by the creator to make the world. Through heka, symbolic actions could have practical effects.
All deities and people were thought to possess this force in some degree, but there were rules about why and how it could be used. Egyptians believed that with Heka, the activation of the Ka, an aspect of the soul of both gods and humans, they could influence the gods and gain protection, healing and transformation.
Health and wholeness of being were sacred to Heka.It was not a secular practice but rather a religious observance.
Every aspect of life, every word, plant, animal and ritual was connected to the power and authority of the gods.
In ancient Egypt, magic consisted of four components; the primeval potency that empowered the creator-god was identified with Heka
This magic was used in temple rituals as well as informal situations by priests.These rituals, along with medical practices, formed an integrated therapy for both physical and spiritual health.
Magic was also used for protection against the angry deities, jealous ghosts, foreign demons and sorcerers who were thought to cause illness, accidents, poverty and infertility. Temple priests used wands during magical rituals.
Egypt was a powerful nation a 1000 years before the Minoans of Crete built their palace at Knossos, and about 900 years before the Israelites followed Moses out of Egypt. Egyptian civilization continued for more than 3,000 years. Its geographical location, deserts surrounding the Valley of the Nile, discouraged hostile invasions. The Mediterranean Sea, to the North, encouraged commerce and trade.
The early ancestors of the Egyptians to settle around the Nile more permanently and forced them to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle.
The mystery of where the Israelites entered Sinai and the sacred height where God gave Moses the Ten Commandments. that is Southern Sinai's Gebel Musa ("Mountain of Moses") carries enormous spiritual and historical significance for Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
In the 4th century AD, Coptic Christians came to the mountain and founded a small church at the spot where it was believed God spoke to Moses in the form of the burning bush. Later on, the site evolved into St. Catherine's Monastery, revered by many as one of the most sacred places on Earth.
Ancient Gods of EgyptAken is the ferryman to the underworld Aker is the deification of the horizon Am-heh is the minor underworld god Ammit is the crocodile-headed devourer in Duat, not a true deity Amun or Amen is the "the hidden one", a local creator deity later married to Mut after rising in importance Amunet is the female aspect of the primordial concept of air in the Ogdoad cosmogony; depicted as a cobra snake or a snake-headed woman Andjety is the god thought to be a precursor to Osiris Anhur is the god of war
Ankt is the a minor war goddess Anput is the female aspect of Anubis and his wife Anti is the god of ferrymen Anubis or Yinepu is the dog or jackal god of embalming and tomb-caretaker who watches over the dead Anuket is the gazelle-headed goddess of the Nile River, the child of Satis and among the Elephantine triad of deities Apophis or Apep is the evil serpent of the Underworld and enemy of Ra; formed from a length of Neith's spit during her creation of the world Apis is the bull deity worshipped in the Memphis region Ash is the god of oases and the vineyards of the western Nile Delta The Aten is the sun god worshipped primarily during the period of Atenism in the eighteenth dynasty when Pharaoh Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) introduced monotheistic worship Atum is the a creator deity, and the setting sun Babi is the baboon god associated with death and virility Banebdjedet is the ram god of fertility Ba-Pef is the minor underworld god Bastet or Bast is the protector of the pharaoh and solar goddess, depicted as a lioness, house cat, cat-bodied or cat-headed woman
Bat is the cow goddess who gave authority to the king; her cult originated in Hu and persisted widely until absorbed as an aspect of Hathor after the eleventh dynasty Bata is the bull god Bes is the dwarfed demigod associated with protection of the household, particularly childbirth, and entertainment Chenti or cheti is the crocodile god Geb is the god of the Earth, first ruler of Egypt and husband of Nut Ha is the god of the western deserts Hapi or Hapy is the deification of the annual flooding of the Nile, associated with fertility Hathor or Hethert is the cow or cow-goddess of the sky, fertility, love, beauty and music Hatmehit is the fish goddess, originally a deification of the Nile River Hedetet is the scorpion goddess, later incorporated into Isis Hemen is the falcon god
Heqet is the frog or a frog-headed goddess of childbirth and fertility Hemsut is the goddess of fate and protection Heryshaf is the ram god Horus or Heru is the falcon-headed god of the sky, pharaohs, war and protection The four sons of Horus is the personifications of the four canopic jars Hu is the deification of the first word Huh is the deification of eternity Iabet is the goddess of the east, consort of Min and cleanser of Ra Iah is the god of the moon Iat is the minor goddess of milk and, by association, of nurturing and childbirth Imentet is the goddess of the necropoleis west of the Nile Isis or Aset is the goddess of magic, motherhood and fertility and consort of Osiris; represented as the throne Iusaaset is the a primal goddess described as "the grandmother of all of the deities" Kebechet is the deification of embalming liquid
Khepri is the the scarab beetle or scarab-headed god of rebirth and the sunrise Kneph is the a creator deity Khnum is the ram-headed creator god of the flooding of the Nile River Khonsu is the god of youth and the moon Kuk is the frog headed personification of darkness, whose consort or female form was the snake-headed Kauket Maahes is the lion-headed god of war, weather. Ma'at is the goddess who personified concept of truth, balance, justice and order Mafdet is the goddess who protected against snakes and scorpions Mehen is the protective snake god which coils around the sun god Ra during his journey through the night Menhit is the goddess of war, associated with Sekhmet Meret is the goddess associated with rejoicing, singing and dancing Meretseger is the cobra-goddess of tomb builders and protector of royal tombs Meskhenet is the goddess of childbirth and the creator of each person's Ka, a part of their soul, which she breathed into them at the moment of birth
Min is the god of fertility and lettuce, often represented as a man with an erect penis Mnevis is the the sacred bull of Heliopolis Monthu is the falcon god of war Mut is the mother goddess, associated with the waters from which everything was born Nefertem is the god of healing and beauty Nehebkau is the guardian of the entrance to the underworld Neith is the goddess of creation, weaving, war and the dead Nekhbet is the vulture goddess; patron of pharaohs and Upper Egypt Neper is the androgynous deification of grain Nephthys or Nebthet is the goddess of death, night and lamentation; the nursing mother of Horus and the pharaohs Nu is the deification of the primordial watery abyss Nut is the goddess of the sky and heavens Osiris or Wesir is the merciful judge of the dead in the afterlife and consort of Isis Pakhet is the a synthesis of Sekhmet and Bast
Petbe is the god of revenge Ptah is the creator deity, also a god of craft Qebui is the god of the north wind Ra is the the sun, also a creator deity, whose chief cult center was based in Heliopolis Rem is the fish god who fertilises the land with his tears Renenutet is the deification of the act of giving a true name during birth Saa or Sia is the deification of perception Satet is the goddess of war, hunting, fertility and the flooding of the Nile River Sekhmet is the lioness goddess of destruction, pestilence and war; fierce protector of the pharaoh, and later as an aspect of Hathor Seker or Sokar is the falcon god of the Memphite necropolis Serket is the scorpion goddess of healing stings and bites Seshat is the goddess of writing, astronomy, astrology, architecture, and mathematics; depicted as a scribe Set or Seth is the god of the desert, storms and foreigners; later god of chaos Shai is the deification of the concept of fate Shed is the savior deity Shezmu is the god of execution, slaughter, blood, oil and wine Shu is the personification of air Sobek is the crocodile god of the Nile; patron of the military Sobkou is the messenger god Sopdet is the deification of the star Sothis (Sirius) Sopdu is the persSaveonification of the scorching heat of the sun
Ta-Bitjet is the scorpion goddess identified as the consort of Horus Tatenen is the god of the primordial mound Taweret is the hippopotamus goddess of pregnant women and protector during childbirth Tefnut is the goddess of moisture, moist air, dew and rain. Tenenet is the goddess of beer Thoth or Djehuty is the ibis-headed god of the moon, drawing, writing, geometry, wisdom, medicine, music, astronomy and magic Unut is the snake goddess Wadjet is the snake goddess and protector of Lower Egypt Wadj-wer is the fertility god and personification of the Mediterranean Sea or lakes of the Nile Delta Weneg is the plant god supporting the heavens Werethekau is the personification of supernatural powers Wepwawet is the jackal god of warfare and hunting Wosret is a localized guardian goddess, protector of the young god Horus; an early consort of Amun, later superseded by